Dacryocystitis in Children

What is dacryocystitis in children?

Dacryocystitis in children is an inflammation of the lacrimal sac. It occurs in 2-7% of patients with diseases of the lacrimal organs. Female children are affected by the disease 6-10 times more often than male children.

Forms of the course of dacryocystitis:

  • acute
  • chronic

Forms of chronic dacryocystitis:

  • simple
  • ectatic catarrhal
  • stenosing
  • empyema of the lacrimal sac
  • phlegmon of the lacrimal sac.

Separately, in the literature, dacryocystitis of newborns is considered, which can take the following forms:

  • simple
  • ectatic catarrhal
  • purulent
  • phlegmonous.

Acute dacryocystitis in most cases occurs as a result of a chronic process (but – rarely – it can also be an independent form of the disease). This is a purulent inflammation of the walls of the lacrimal sac. If the surrounding tissue is further involved in the process, phlegmon of the lacrimal sac appears.

Types of dacryocystitis by etiology:

  • viral,
  • bacterial,
  • parasitic,
  • chlamydial,
  • post-traumatic.

Causes of Dacryocystitis in Children

Stenosis of the nasolacrimal canal and stagnation of tears in the lacrimal sac leads to dacryocystitis in children. The lacrimal sac is located in the fossa of the lacrimal sac at the medial angle of the orbit – the lacrimal tubules flow into it.

Dacryocystitis in newborns is most often caused by atresia of the outlet of the nasolacrimal duct.

Pathogenesis during Dacryocystitis in Children

The outflow of tears is disrupted, and this leads to the development of pathogenic flora in the lacrimal sac. By pathogenic flora is meant pathogenic microorganisms, which, entering the human body (including its mucous membranes), cause various diseases and dysfunctions.

The outflow of tears is difficult due to inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nasolacrimal duct, which in most cases passes from the nasal mucosa.