What is Sparganosis?
Sparganosis is a zoonotic helminthiasis from the group of cestodosis. It is characterized by damage to the internal organs, subcutaneous tissue, conjunctiva of the eyes and other organs and tissues.
Cases of the disease are found in Russia (in the Far East and the European territory), countries of Southeast Asia, less frequently on other continents. The incidence is sporadic.
Causes of Sparganosis
The causative agent is Spirometra erinacei-europaei. Mature tapeworms live in the small intestine of various mammals. Eggs, released from the body with feces, develop in water in coracidia. Free coracidia are swallowed by cyclops. When water is ingested, the procercoids penetrate through the intestinal wall, are localized in various tissues and pass into the plerocercoid stage.
Pathogenesis during Sparganosis
A person becomes infected with water containing invasive Cyclops crustaceans. It is also possible contamination by eating meat from infested frogs, snakes and other additional hosts of the pathogen. There are cases of infection and by contact, when as a remedy to the wounds and ulcers were applied the meat of frogs or snakes.
The natural susceptibility of people is not defined.
The incubation period is not defined.
Penetrating after infection through the intestinal wall, the pathogen migrates in the body, then localizing in various internal organs and tissues, often under the skin, in the intermuscular connective tissue, under the conjunctiva of the eye, causing a local inflammatory process.
Parasitizing sparganum in the body is accompanied by the development of inflammatory reactions, parasites exert constant pressure on the surrounding tissues, vessels, nerves, which leads to the development of dystrophic and necrotic processes. The presence of sparganum in the body leads to allergic disorders.
In places of defeat, edematous, painful nodes are revealed, in the center of which a ribbon-like larva moves.
After her death, pronounced inflammation develops with tissue destruction and massive eosinophilia.
When infected lymphatic vessels develop limited elephantiasis.
Diagnosis of Sparganosis
The diagnosis of sparganosis is based on anamnestic guidelines for eating additional hosts, the presence of infiltrates in the subcutaneous tissue without an inflammatory reaction and the morphological study of the removed tissues and the detection of parasites.
Treatment consists of intravenous nsosalvarsan and surgical removal of the larvae from under the skin, or the appointment of thiabendazole.
Use only pre-disinfected water from open reservoirs for drinking and eating only thermally disinfected meat of frogs, snakes, etc. Measures of immunoprophylaxis have not been developed.