What is Tracheitis?
Tracheitis – inflammation of the tracheal mucosa. There are acute and chronic tracheitis.
Causes of Tracheitis
Acute tracheitis is rarely isolated; it usually occurs in combination with acute rhinitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis. The most common cause of acute tracheitis is a viral infection, less often staphylococcus, streptococcus, etc. The development of tracheitis is promoted by the inhalation of dry, cold or dusty air, irritating vapors and gases.
Morphological changes in the trachea in acute tracheitis are characterized by edema, infiltration and hyperemia of the mucous membrane, on the surface of which mucus accumulations can be detected, in some cases (for example, with flu) – pinpoint hemorrhages.
Chronic tracheitis can develop from acute. Often it occurs in individuals who abuse smoking and alcohol, as well as with congestion in the respiratory tract on the basis of emphysema, heart disease, kidney disease; Often it is caused by chronic inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
In chronic tracheitis, both hypertrophic and atrophic changes in the tracheal mucosa can be observed. Hypertrophic tracheitis is characterized by dilation of blood vessels and swelling of the mucous membrane, enhanced secretion of mucus and purulent sputum. In case of atrophy, the mucous membrane becomes thinner, becomes grayish in color, becomes smooth, shiny, and sometimes becomes covered with small crusts, causing an agonizing cough. Atrophic chronic tracheitis usually accompanies atrophy of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract.
Symptoms of acute tracheitis usually appear following the development of acute inflammation of the overlying respiratory tract. The most characteristic sign of tracheitis is a dry cough at night and especially in the morning, as well as coughing fits with a deep breath, laughter, crying, and a change in air temperature. During and after a coughing attack, there is a nagging pain in the throat and behind the sternum, as a result of which patients try to restrict their breathing. In such cases, especially in children, breathing becomes shallow and rapid. Even a small accumulation of sputum in the area of the trachea bifurcation causes another bout of strong, convulsive cough. With concomitant laryngitis, the voice may be hoarse. With percussion and auscultation of light abnormalities are usually not observed. The general condition of the patient usually suffers slightly, the body temperature is often slightly elevated, especially in the evenings; in children, it can reach 39 °. The phlegm is viscous, mucous in nature at first, it hardly leaves in a small amount. Gradually (starting from the 3rd-4th day), it becomes muco-purulent, more abundant, separates more easily: pain when coughing becomes less intense.
Sometimes simultaneously with the trachea, the inflammatory process captures the large bronchi and the clinical picture takes on the character of a tracheobronchitis in which the cough is more painful and constant than with tracheitis, the body temperature is higher.
The most common complication of tracheitis and tracheobronchitis is the spread of the inflammatory process to the mucous membrane of the underlying respiratory tract. Especially dangerous is the development of bronchopneumonia in old age and bronchiolitis in children.
The main symptom of chronic tracheitis is a paroxysmal, painful cough, especially at night and in the morning, accompanied by pain in the chest. Sputum in a patient with chronic tracheitis in some cases can be scanty and viscous, in others – copious and mucopurulent. However, despite its consistency, it almost always separates very easily. The course of the disease in most patients is long, with exacerbations.
Diagnosis of Tracheitis
The diagnosis of acute tracheitis is based on the clinical picture, anamnesis, and the results of the examination of the trachea with a laryngoscope.
During auscultation of the lungs in the initial stage of the tracheobronchitis, dry, later – non-sounding moist small and medium-sized wheezing scattered through both lungs (mainly in the root and lower lobes) are heard.
Treatment of Tracheitis
Treatment of acute tracheitis should be aimed primarily at eliminating causal and contributing factors to tracheitis. The patient is prescribed mustard plasters on the chest, with symptoms of intoxication or the spread of the process to the lower respiratory tract sections – sulfa drugs and antibiotics, including in the form of aerosols, with a painful cough, codeine, libexin, with difficult sputum discharge – expectorant drugs – thermopsy herb, althea root, licorice, etc., alkaline inhalations.
If a viral infection is assumed (first of all, influenza A and B), remantadine is prescribed according to the following scheme: on the 1st day – 0.1 g 3 times a day, on the 2nd and 3rd days – 0.1 g 2 times per day, on the 4th day – 0.1 g 1 time per day after meals.
Remantadin is more effective in the first days of treatment. In case of an unspecified viral infection, interferon is used in the form of repeated irrigations (0.6 mg per procedure) of the nasopharyngeal and tracheal mucosa. Without the use of antiviral agents, treatment is mainly symptomatic: mustard plasters on the sternum region and between the shoulder blades, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, paracetamol), hot sips, thermal inhalations.
For inhalation, it is advisable to use a conventional steam or ultrasonic inhaler. However, thermal inhalation can be carried out at home and in their absence. For steam inhalation, an enameled pan can be adapted in which 4-5 glasses of water are heated with the addition of various medications that cause a mild anti-inflammatory effect (5-10 drops of 5-10% iodine tincture, 1-2 tablespoons of crushed eucalyptus leaves, 0.5-1 tsp. of eucalyptus, menthol or anise oil).
A cone-shaped funnel is folded out of thick paper, the wide end of which tightly covers the pan, while the patient breathes through the narrow end of the funnel inserted into his mouth. You can also breathe steam over a saucepan by closing with a wide towel or sheet at a distance of 20-30 cm, keeping in mind that the longer this distance, the lower the steam temperature. These thermal inhalations should be carried out for 5 minutes several times a day for 3-5 days.
In the treatment of acute and acute exacerbations of chronic tracheitis, propolis (bee glue) is a sticky resinous substance with a pleasant odor, a greenish-brown color, collected and produced by bees. Apply inhalation of propolis. To do this, 60 g of propolis and 40 g of wax must be placed in an aluminum dish with a capacity of 300 ml and put it in another large bowl with boiling water. Breathe in the morning and evening for 10-15 minutes.
Another means for inhalation are medicinal aromatic oils. Vegetable oils are able to protect the mucosa from the aggressive action of microorganisms, to prevent the development of bacteria. This is important because a bacterial component often joins with a viral infection. In addition, some aromatic oils have a pronounced antiviral effect. Since oil formulations cannot be used in nebulizers and ultrasonic inhalers, Olephar throat spray can be used to treat tracheitis with these natural ingredients.
This is the only throat spray in Ukraine entirely on a natural basis, which has already shown its high effectiveness in the northern countries – Finland and the Baltic countries.
Olefar contains vegetable oils obtained from izoblepikhi, cinnamon, calendula, and tea tree, and even peppermint oil and rapeseed oil are used as auxiliary components. Spray spray is made so that the drug could reach the destination – the larynx and trachea, not settling on the palatine arches and tongue.
Due to its composition, Olephar has a bactericidal, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulating, healing, analgesic effect, as it delivers a number of necessary biologically active substances to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. trace elements and vitamins.
Also Olefar envelops the mucous membrane and protects it, creating a barrier to further penetration of pathogens.
When exhausting dry cough shows antitussives (codeine, libexin, glaucine, etc.). If sputum is difficult to expect, expectorants. In cases of a combination of tracheitis with acute pharyngitis, laryngitis in the 1-3rd day of the disease, an apomorphine hydrochloride mixture of 1 tbsp. Is effective. l every 2-3 hours, apply and infusion of thermopsis, Althea. For purulent sputum sulfanilamide preparations are prescribed, antibiotics (preferably in aerosols). Vitamin therapy is also indicated (vitamins A and C, 3 mg and 0, 1 g, respectively, 3 times a day).
The prognosis of uncomplicated acute tracheitis with timely treatment is usually favorable – after 1-2 weeks. comes recovery.
Treatment of chronic tracheitis is based on the same principles as in acute tracheitis. For purulent and mucopurulent sputum, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used (ampicillin 2–3 g per day, treatment 1.5–3 weeks; doxycycline 0.2 g on the first day, and 0.1 g each in the following days; treatment 7-14 days).
The inhalations of garlic or onion phytoncides are shown (garlic and onion juice is prepared before inhalation, mixed with 0.25% novocaine solution or isotonic sodium chloride solution in a ratio of 1 part juice to 3 parts solvent). Inhalation spend 2 times a day (in the course of 20 inhalations). For phytoncides also include chlorfillipt. Apply inside a 1% alcohol solution of 25 drops 3 times a day.
Expectorant remedies of reflex action are shown (they increase the secretion of bronchial glands, thin the sputum). Of the expectorant means prescribed abundant alkaline drink, 3% potassium iodide solution, infusions and decoctions of Althea, thermopsis up to 10 times a day, inhalation with 2% sodium bicarbonate solution. Expectorant drugs are used in the period of exacerbation of the disease, and in the period of remission.
The prognosis for recovery with timely and proper treatment of chronic tracheitis is often favorable.
Prevention of both acute and chronic tracheitis is aimed at the timely elimination of the causes of tracheitis, strengthening the body, especially those prone to acute diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In this case, you can also use a spray for the throat Olefar, which envelops the mucous membrane and protects it, thus creating a barrier to further penetration of microorganisms into the mucous membrane. Of great importance hardening, reducing dust and gas pollution of the air.